Bleeding on warfarin guidelines

All hospitals managing patients on warfarin should stock a licensed four‐factor PCC (1C). Emergency anticoagulation reversal in major bleeding should be with 25-50 U/kg four‐factor PCC and 5 mg intravenous vitamin K (1B). Recombinant factor VIIa is not recommended for emergency anticoagulation reversal (1B) Any bleeding in a patient on warfarin should be taken seriously. If INR is not elevated then bleeding may be due to other factors and warfarin reversal may not be appropriate. Consider an underlying pathological cause. If in doubt discuss with a senior doctor or Haematologist

Guideline on the management of bleeding in patients on

Warfarin is associated with an increased risk of bleeding, as are a variety of other anticoagulants. The effect of warfarin has great inter- and intra-individual variation based on a variety of genetic, dietary, and medication effects Bleeding is the most common complication of warfarin therapy and is related to the INR value.(5) Warfarin causes major bleeding in one to two per cent of people treated and intracranial bleeding in 0.1 to 0.5 per cent of patients each year of treatment.6 The highest rate of majo 1. The risk of significant bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulants and with a stable INR in the therapeutic range 2-4 (ie <4) is very small and the risk of thrombosis may be increased in patients in whom oral anticoagulants are temporarily discontinued. Oral anticoagulants should not be discontinued in the majority of patients requiring out-patient dental surgery including dental extraction (grade A level Ib Bleeding is considered to be a major event if it occurs at a critical site, there is accompanying hemodynamic instability, or there is bleeding with a decrease in hemoglobin of at least 2 g per dL..

(a) For patients taking VKAs with INRs between 4.5 and 10 and with no evidence of bleeding, we suggest against the routine use of vitamin K (Grade 2B). (b) For patients taking VKAs with INRs > 10.0 and with no evidence of bleeding, we suggest that oral vitamin K be administered (Grade 2C). 9.2 REMEMBER! Delayed intercranial bleeding can occur in patients on Warfarin even if CT head is normal - advise patient/family on signs and symptoms Following significant head injury with clear CT scan the INR should be maintained as close to 2.0 as possible for 4 weeks BLEEDING WITH IV UNFRACTIONATED HEPARIN (PUMP-HEP

To reduce the risk of a bleeding event from warfarin treatment, follow these guidelines: Tell your doctor about all medications, herbal remedies or supplements you take. Ask if you need testing to see if a new medication affects your warfarin treatment Warfarin therapy should be stopped five days before major surgery and restarted 12 to 24 hours postoperatively. Bridging with low-molecular-weight heparin or other agents is based on balancing the..

Initial warfarin dosing should be tailored based on patient bleed risk, potential sensitivity to warfarin, indication, goal INR range, and if potential drug interactions are present Warfarin is a blood-thinning medication that helps treat and prevent blood clots. There is no specific warfarin diet. However, certain foods and beverages can make warfarin less effective in preventing blood clots. It's important to pay attention to what you eat while taking warfarin Warfarin (brand names Coumadin and Jantoven) is a prescription medication used to prevent harmful blood clots from forming or growing larger. Beneficial blood clots prevent or stop bleeding, but harmful blood clots can cause a heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.Because warfarin interferes with the formation of blood clots, it is called an anticoagulant (PDF) • Despite the associated bleeding risk, warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant in Australia and New Zealand. Warfarin use will likely continue for anticoagulation indications for which novel agents have not been evaluated and among patients who are already stabilised on it or have severe renal impairment Guidelines for warfarin management in the community - ii - Disclaimer Warfarin causes major bleeding in one to two per cent of people treated and intracranial bleeding in 0.1 to 0.5 per cent of patients each year of treatment (Gallus et al. 2000). The highest rate of major bleeding

  1. Prospective evaluation of an index for predicting major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin. Am J Med. 1998;105:91-9. Aspinall SL, DeSanzo BE, Trilli LE, et al. Bleeding Risk Index in an anticoagulation clinic. Assessment by indication and implications for care. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:1008-13. Risk Factor. Points Awarded. Age >= 65
  2. K 1mg IV or orally (IV active within 6-8hrs, oral active within 12-24hrs
  3. imally abov
  4. imal even in patients on anti-thrombotic agents (polypectomy can be performed in therapeutically anticoagulated patients with lesions up to 1cm in size with an acceptable bleeding rate) General Recommendations for Pre-Procedure Warfarin Managemen
  5. Guidelines for the management of an elevated INR in adults Management of patients on Warfarin therapy with high INR in Adults WITHOUT Bleeding (1) INR greater than therapeutic range but <4.5 IINR 4.5-10.0 Bleeding risk Lo
  6. K in any form ranged between 71% and 82%
  7. Asians have higher risks of bleeding complications when taking anticoagulants than non-Asians. Current guidelines support the use of direct oral anticoagulants as non-inferior or even superior to warfarin in Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, although limited clinical trials involving Asians exist, and there is a lack of laboratory data of blood clotting in most real-world studies

Warfarin can be challenging to manage due to its narrow therapeutic range, variable dose‐ response among different patients and common interactions with drugs, diet and other factors. In patients who are taking warfarin, thromboembolic events and bleeding are strongl Bleeding is a common adverse effect of all anticoagulants, including warfarin, and it can occur in any part of the body. Advise the person taking warfarin to seek immediate medical advice if: Spontaneous bleeding occurs whilst on warfarin and the bleeding does not stop, or recurs Patients should be restarted on usual warfarin dose as soon as risk of surgical bleeding has resolved as per bridging guidelines. Non-emergency surgery should be re-scheduled if the INR is too high For further guidance on reduction of the effects of warfarin, please contact the on-call haematologist ASGE guidelines (Table 3).8 Studies on postprocedural bleeding risks have been conducted in patients who are not on complex antithrombotic regimens and thus may not accurately reflect the bleeding risk of patients using newer antithrombotic therapies. Traditionally, low-risk procedures have included diagnostic EGD, colonoscopy, ERCP withou

Warfarin is contraindicated for patients with active haemorrhage, cerebral vascular haemorrhage (confirmed or suspected) and those with active bleeding disorder and bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. 4.2 Pregnancy Warfarin crosses the placenta and foetal exposure to warfarin is associated with The dosage and administration of COUMADIN must be individualized for each patient according to the patient's INR response to the drug. Adjust the dose based on the patient's INR and the condition being treated. Consult the latest evidence-based clinical practice guidelines . 3 . Reference ID: 302295 Compared with warfarin monotherapy, triple antithrombotic therapy (with warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel) more than 3-fold increased the risk of both nonfatal and fatal bleeding . Other medications also increase hemorrhage risk, notably non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and should be avoided if possible in patients taking chronic. These guidelines apply to warfarin reversal. Haematology consultation is recommended for management of bleeding with the novel oral anticoagulants. Management of patients on warfarin therapy with bleeding Clinical setting Recommendations INR ≥ 1.5 with life-threatening (critical organ) bleeding Cease warfarin therapy and administer. INTRODUCTION. Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant in the United States. Current U.S. guidelines for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) recommend warfarin over direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban) in patients with mechanical heart valves and those with creatinine clearance less than 15 mL/min. 1,2.


  1. INR >5 and/or bleeding: Hold warfarin and follow guideline for reversal of antithrombotic agents if bleeding If patient was on a stable regimen prior to drug interaction, resume previous maintenance dose. Otherwise, monitor INR and adjust as needed. Rifampin Rifabutin Empiric dose increase of 20- 30% starting 3- 5 days post initiation o
  2. K 2.5mg oral or 1-2mg IV infusion over 30
  3. istering a higher dose of vita
  4. Patients on warfarin and their physicians must constantly balance the risks of bleeding and clotting.We offer practical tips for safe and effective warfarin therapy, based on the practices of the Anticoagulation Clinic of The Cleveland Clinic. KEY POINTS Warfarin should usually be started at a dose of 5 mg pe
  5. ever, anticoagulation with oral warfarin or intravenous heparin within 3 days after has been shown to increase the risk of postsphincterotomy bleeding.40 PEG placement has an overall bleeding complication rate of approximately 2.5%.41,42 The risk of bleeding for PEG placement in the patient receiving antithrombotic therapy is unknown
  6. Warfarin or antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), ticlopidine (Ticlid®), prasugrel (Effient®), ticagrelor (Brilinta®) and/or aspirin are commonly used in patients who have experienced a DVT or PE, patients who have had an MI and/or who have undergone cardiac stent placement, or in patients with NVAF. 7 As reviewed in the following sections, there is general agreement based on.
  7. Pediatric Supratherapeutic INR Guidelines Bleeding Evaluation Inquire if any signs and symptoms of bleeding are present. o If symptoms of serious bleeding are present, hold warfarin and refer for immediate emergency evaluation. Management in The Bleeding Patient£(1) Any INR Action Comment Serious or Life-Threatening Bleeding Hold warfarin

Bleeding with Anticoagulants: ACC Releases Expert

WARFARIN REVERSAL GUIDELINE SUMMARY Warfarin (Coumadin®) is used to treat a number of hypercoagulable disease states. Since each patient responds differently to the same dose, this medication carries a high risk of bleeding. Some patients may ultimately require reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), phytonadione (Vitamin K), fres UMHS Clinical Care Guidelines Warfarin/Coumadin® - 2 - Tell your dentist and other doctors that you are on warfarin/Coumadin®. Maintain regular communication with your Anticoagulation Provider to keep your INR at a safe level. Lab Tests: You will need to have your blood drawn regularly to measure your INR Of the 439 patients taking warfarin, 9 patients (2.1%) returned with postoperative bleeding 0 to 10 days postoperatively. There were no cases of bleeding after extraction in the control group of 439 patients not taking warfarin. There was also no bleeding in patients with an INR less than 2.2. Furthermore, there was no difference found in the. The previous guidelines (2012) recommended replacing warfarin with heparin in gastroenterological endoscopic procedures with a high risk of bleeding. 1, 2 However, a case-control study, meta-analysis and randomized controlled studies have indicated a significantly increased risk of bleeding in patients undergoing heparin replacement instead. bleeding and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of these instructions is to provide guidelines for the reversal or management of bleeding with anticoagulant therapy. The following procedures and guidelines have been approved by the Medical Board to promote the safe and effective use of the anticoagulation agents listed below: II. GUIDELINES

Bleeding . The major adverse event associated with warfarin is bleeding. The reported rate of major bleeding in patients requiring warfarin is less than 1% per patient year. In an audit of bleeding events at RCH, our major bleeding rate was found to be 0.05% per patient year The reported percentage of major bleeding which can be life-threatening in patients taking warfarin ranges from 0.4 to 7.2%, while for minor bleeding, the percentage is approximately 15.4.5 It has been found that the annual rate of major bleeding in case of patients with atrial fibrillation who receive warfarin treatment is between 0.4 and 2.6. II. GUIDELINES: A. Correction of Supratherapeutic Anticoagulation with Warfarin Management of warfarin reversal and bleeding events is summarized below: 1. Management of life-threatening bleeds in patients on warfarin in the ED a. KCentra (4-factor PCC) is first line unless otherwise contraindicated b Bleeding risks increase when aspirin and NSAIDs are given in addition to VKAs. Patients should be given instructions to deal with potential bleeding, and should be advised about when to seek medical attention for excessive bleeding. General Recommendations for Pre-Procedure Warfarin Management. Routine dental cleaning: No warfarin hold necessar

The intent of this guideline is to provide evidencebased recommendations for the treatment - of bleeding in patients on antithrombotic therapy and standardize care within UW Health. The guideline provides reversal recommendations for the following: warfarin, oral and intravenou Background. Warfarin reduces the incidence of thromboembolism but increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). GIB during warfarin anticoagulation is rarely evaluated in Asian patients. Aims. This study aimed at investigating the incidence, risk factors, management, and outcome of GIB in Taiwanese patients treated with warfarin. <i>Methods.</i> We analyzed a cohort of warfarin. Page 2 of 16 Atrial fibrillation: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial recommends against bridging patients on warfarin for atrial fibrillation at low to moderate risk of thrombosis.23 Patient harm with increased bleeding rates were shown with bridging anticoagulation. 23 Consensus guidelines suggest that a patient's bleeding risk should also be considered to determine if bridging is. Consistent with other guidelines, we recommend a dose of 5-10 mg. 25, 34, 35 Our recommendations for managing patients on warfarin therapy with bleeding are summarised in Box 5. For life-threatening (critical organ) and clinically significant bleeds, the consensus is to use the maximum dose of Prothrombinex-VF (with vitamin K 1 and FFP) and.

Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy - CHES

Warfarin Reversal ( in adults )

Warfarin side effects: Watch for interactions - Mayo Clini

Clinical Practice Guidelines Recommend PCC Over Plasma to Reverse the Effects of Warfarin Kcentra®, Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (Human), is the only FDA-approved alternative to plasma for urgent warfarin reversal American Society of Hematology - 20186 For life-threatening bleeding during VKA treatment for VTE with an elevated INR Guidelines on the use of OCTAPLEX® (Prothrombin complex concentrate/PCC) for rapid reversal of warfarin in association with life threatening bleeding. 1. Introduction 1.1 Octaplex is licensed in the UK for treatment of bleeding disorders including reversal of oral anticoagulation Background There were limited data on the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). We aimed to evaluate the PPB and thromboembolic risks among DOAC and warfarin users in a population-based cohort. Methods We performed a territory-wide retrospective cohort study involving patients in Hong Kong from 2012 to 2020 Warfarin (Coumadin®) (A normal thrombin time excludes clinically ® ® ® No Provide supportive ® INR 4 ® ® University.-Health System Anticoagulants and Management of Bleeding Guideline Patients with trauma and/or life-threatening hemorrhage (ICH, intra-abdominal, intra-thoracic) or needs emergent operative intervention Check INR INR 1.4.

Once the diagnosis of warfarin associated bleeding is established, its rapid reversal is critical. The ideal approach includes discontinuing warfarin, giving 2-10 mg intravenous vitamin K since subcutaneous route is not recommended by AACP guidelines due to unpredictable absorption and response, and replacing VKDF either with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) or plasma therapy bleeding and to report immediately to physicians signs and symptoms of bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients). DESCRIPTION COUMADIN (crystalline warfarin sodium) is an anticoagulant which acts by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Chemically, it is 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and is The need to withhold warfarin is determined by the bleeding risk that the procedure poses, as well as the techniques utilised and patient factors. 1,3,9,12,13 Ultimately, each proceduralist assesses and manages the bleeding risk in accordance with local guidelines and input from the haematology team if required Guidelines on Perioperative Management of Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Agents | Page 5 Clinical Excellence Commission December 2018 INTRODUCTION This clinical guideline is intended to assist clinicians with the inpatient and outpatient management of adul

Updated Guidelines on Outpatient Anticoagulation

Physicians should preferentially choose a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) over warfarin in most patients with atrial fibrillation, according to a focused update to the 2014 US guideline. The new class I (level of evidence A) recommendation—which brings consistency between the American and European guidelines—represents. The ESGE 2015 guidelines on diagnosis and management of non-variceal upper GI hemorrhage recommend that warfarin therapy is reinitiated 7-15 days following the bleeding event (or earlier, for patients at high risk of thrombosis; moderate evidence) , while guidance from the British Society of Gastroenterology recommends resumption of warfarin.

Warfarin diet: What foods should I avoid? - Mayo Clini

NB All bleeding in a patient on warfarin should be taken seriously. Bleeding may occur when the INR is therapeutic. If the INR is sub-therapeutic e.g. <1.5 bleeding may be due to factors other than warfarin and reversal may not be appropriate. If in doubt discuss with haematologist Mechanical heart valves are associated with a risk of thromboembolism and anticoagulation is generally recommended. However, this is inevitably associated with a risk of intracranial bleeding. The case of a patient who sustained an intracranial bleed while taking warfarin for a prosthetic aortic valve and a further two intracranial bleeds while on heparin as an inpatient is discussed and the.

Splenic infarction after reversal of warfarin using

For patients receiving anticoagulation therapy for VTE who survive an episode of major bleeding, the ASH guideline panel suggests resumption of oral anticoagulation therapy within 90 days rather than discontinuation of oral anticoagulation therapy (conditional recommendation based on very low certainty in the evidence about effects ⊕ ) The content is based on the latest available evidence-based guidelines and research, whenever possible. If you are aware of new guidelines or research, or if you have suggestions that Estimates risk of major bleeding for patients on warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Modifiable risk factors in red

Two studies showed that VKAs-related coagulopathy at presentation does not have a negative impact on bleeding-related outcomes, provided that anticoagulation is promptly reversed: (i) in a prospective study by Choudari et al., 52 GI bleeders on warfarin (INR at presentation, 1.5-6.0) who received fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to decrease the INR. For patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), bridging of warfarin therapy with LMWH has not been recommended in previous guidelines.2, 16 This policy has been tested in a large RCT of 1884 AF patients with peri-operative interruption of warfarin therapy, randomised to bridging with LMWH or placebo.17 Approximately half of these. no preoperative interruption of warfarin is required. It is also reasonable to continue warfarin but lower the dose to target a lower INR (2.0 instead of 2.5, and 2.5 instead of 3). For patients at moderate to high bleeding risk, warfarin should be held 4 days preoperatively. Patients with low thromboembolic risk do not require preoperative. Date: 01 November 2012. Addendum. - 06 February 2019. Read Addendum. The objective of this document is to guide healthcare professionals on the management of patients receiving antithrombotic drugs who experience significant bleeding or who require emergency surgery or an invasive procedure. Go to full guideline. anticoagulant antithrombotic. or extension of existing clot & bleeding: 1) Warfarin 2‐3mg po daily x 2 days, Day 3 INR, subsequent doses based on INRs • Consider in patient populations such as elderly, debilitated, malnourished, heart failure, liver disease, ↑ risk of bleeding or taking medications known to ↑ INR

2. Before initiating warfarin therapy, the patient should be assessed for risk factors that may increase their risk for bleeding, thromboembolic events and for risk factors that may impact the sensitivity of the response to warfarin.1,2 (UW Health GRADE high quality evidence, S recommendation) 3 Warfarin management practices were surveyed among the Ireland-based urology community demonstrating wide ranges in the reinstitution of warfarin post procedure; procedure complexity significantly affected the length of time to warfarin recommencement with respondents restarting warfarin on average 2.41 ± 2.31 days (range 1 to14 days) after.

A Patient's Guide to Taking Warfarin American Heart

Warfarin (Vit. K Antagonist) Reversal. American College of Chest Physicians, 2012 and American Heart Association and Stroke Association 2010 guidelines for warfarin bleeds Minor bleed and INR 4-10, hold warfarin only; Minor bleed and INR >10, 2mg oral vitamin K; Major bleed: 4 PCC instead of FFP, and 5-10mg IV vitamin Guidelines for the Management of Anticoagulant and Anti-Platelet Agent Associated Bleeding Complications in Adults Purpose: To be used as a common tool for all practitioners involved in the care of patients who present with bleeding problems related to use of anticoagulant and anti-platelet agents Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a frequently encountered and very serious problem in emergency room patients who are currently being treated with anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications. There is, however, a lack of clinical practice guidelines about how to respond to these situations. The goal of this study was to find published articles. No study compared the use of hemostatic agents (while continuing warfarin) with warfarin discontinuation, limiting any conclusion regarding the effectiveness of these agents in preventing postoperative bleeding as stated in the American College of Chest Physicians' guideline. 10 The 2 studies that evaluated warfarin continuation versus.

An update of consensus guidelines for warfarin reversa

Bleeding risk assessment for outpatients on warfarin

Warfarin reversal – Frcem Exam ForumDirect-Acting Oral Anticoagulants for Venous

Gastroenterology, Bridging Guidelines, Peri-Procedural

Per Chest guidelines, PCC is recommended in patients anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists (warfarin) who present with a serious or life-threatening bleed at any INR. When used at appropriate doses (25-50 units/kg), INR should begin to decline within 1 After the procedure, warfarin should be restarted 12 to 24 hours after surgery or when oral diet is possible. There were no specific guidelines for bridging postoperatively. Moreover, the AHA and ACC guidelines also state that bridging should be individualized and account for the trade-offs between thrombosis and bleeding If warfarin therapy is to be discontinued (e.g. switched to another oral anticoagulant or stopped due to sustained bleeding risk) the responsible MO must record the reason for the cessation of warfarin therapy in the order comment section of the most recent dose and in eMEDs and in the patient's health care record 4. Strate LL, et al. ACG clinical guideline: management of patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:459-474. 5. Connolly SJ, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1139-1151. 6 If the warfarin is managed by a pathology provider or general practitioner, refer the patient to the Women's haematology outpatients. 4.7 Adverse events One of the major adverse events associated with warfarin is bleeding. If a patient on warfarin suffers significant bleeding, withhold any further doses, and seek urgent Haematology consult

Guidelines for the management of an elevated INR in adults

As previously mentioned, any person taking warfarin or a DOAC has a higher risk for bleeding. However, if warfarin causes bleeding, this can often be reversed by vitamin K (Mephyton), which is available as both an oral tablet and an intravenous (IV) solution. A prescription for oral vitamin K is inexpensive and able to be filled at your local. Exceptions: Patients who are at an increased risk of bleeding such as the elderly or patients with CHF/ liver dx / debilitated / recent major surgery / or patients receiving medications known to potentiate the action of warfarin, should be started on ≤5mg. [Several factors may potentiate the action of warfarin. Many of these factors are included in bleeding-risk estimation tools such as the.

Treatment of Warfarin-Associated Coagulopath

range, a change in warfarin dose might be required. Nomograms for adjusting doses during mainte-nance. Nomograms for maintenance of warfarin ther-apy are also recommended in the ACCP guidelines,6 and they have been shown to increase the TTR.13 Table 2 is an example of a warfarin-dosing nomogram for mainte The bleeding risk of a paracentesis is pretty much universally considered to be low, and for anticoagulation guidelines, this procedure is characterized as low risk for bleeding which helps inform our practices with regards to peri-procedural anticoagulation Multiple guidelines concur that routine, unselected, coagulation testing is not required in those with a negative bleeding history and no liver disease.5 11 12 23 Coagulation tests can be considered for patients with a history of bleeding, anticoagulant drugs, liver or renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, haematological. Optimally, the balance between procedure-related bleeding and recurrent VTE should be assessed. If the risk of bleeding is low, warfarin use may be continued throughout the procedure.1 Warfarin interruption is required for several days before the procedure when the risk of bleeding is high or moderate Warfarin is recommended for the prevention of systemic embolism, stroke associated with atrial fibrillation, and venous thromboembolism (). 1 Its use is limited by several factors including a narrow therapeutic range, and drug-drug and drug-food interactions.Bleeding, particularly in the setting of over-anticoagulation, is a major concern

Endoscopy in patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant

Risk of major bleeding and thromboembolism in Asian

Current Clinical Practice Guidelines generally recommend direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) over warfarin for most patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and atrial fibrillation (AF) as DOACs are as or more effective and cause similar or less bleeding , but there are still circumstances where warfarin is preferable or indicated Current guidelines recommend the discontinuation of warfarin at least five days prior to surgery (Grade 1C recommendation). 3 Despite this recommendation, approximately 7% of patients will still have an international normalized ratio (INR) >1.5 after not taking warfarin for five days. 4 For this reason, the guidelines recommend that all.

Scenario: Warfarin Management Anticoagulation - oral

The risk of major bleeding with warfarin therapy is increased during the drug initiation phase, in patients 65 years of age and older, in patients with highly variable INRs, in patients requiring long-term treatment, in patients with certain genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and/or VKORC1, and in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease. Warfarin is a racemic (equal) mixture of two enantiomers, S-warfarin and R-warfarin. While both enantiomers are pharmacologically active, S-warfarin provides the majority of the clinical effect and toxicity of warfarin, as it is five times more potent than R-warfarin (Saltissi et al, 1999, Cari guidelines, 2005, Fischer, 2007) 3.10 Administration of enoxaparin during haemodialysis for patients with a high risk of bleeding. E.g.: Patients receiving warfarin/ low platelets Enoxaparin must not be administered to patients with a high risk of bleeding 3.11 Management of heparin - induced thrombocytopenia (HIT

Anticoagulation in the Post-Warfarin Era: Where Are We Today?
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